Be your own fact-checker tonight

Republican Mitt Romney and President Barack Obama talk after their first debate Oct. 3 in Denver. Tonight’s debate at Hofstra University in Hempstead, N.Y., is set for 9 p.m.

WASHINGTON — There they go again. Or do they?

Will Mitt Romney miscount the number of unemployed, as he has before? Will President Barack Obama’s dubious claim of a peace dividend, bopped in the last debate, rise again?

When Obama and his Republican challenger debate tonight, the media’s fact-checking corps will be watching for problematic claims that have popped up repeatedly in the campaign, as well as brand new ones.

You can play fact-check Whac-a-Mole, but you might have your hands full. The format, driven by questions from the audience, could shake things even looser than usual.

To be sure, you’re not likely to catch one of them saying it’s daytime when it’s night. Shades of mistruth are more common than whoppers.

Often, the offense is one of omission: an accurate as-far-as-it-goes assertion that ignores something really important, like the other side of the ledger. At times, the debaters tweak a statement to make it closer to right.

Here’s a guide to some of the leading misleading statements of the campaign:

From the State of the Union on, the president has told the nation he wants to take “some of the money that we’re saving as we wind down two wars to rebuild America,” as he put it in the last debate. There is no such pile of cash. The wars were financed mostly with borrowing. So treating the end of wars as a financial bonanza just means continuing to go deeper in debt to fix roads, bridges and the like. The potential benefit is that borrowing is put to more use at home. But it’s still borrowing.

Obama talks frequently about a plan to cut the deficit by $4 trillion. Impressive, but it’s not cut and dried. For one thing, he’s banking more than $2 trillion already achieved in law, after a deal with Republicans last year. And he uses creative accounting to hide a huge cache of spending on Medicare reimbursements to doctors. So any claim like the one in the last debate — “I’ve proposed a specific $4 trillion deficit reduction plan” — could rate a bop.

Obama has something to crow about when he talks about the auto bailout, which almost certainly saved General Motors and Chrysler. His estimate that up to 1 million jobs were saved is based on a 2010 study by the Center for Automotive Research, an industry think tank.

But Obama rarely acknowledges that his predecessor, George W. Bush, began the auto bailout that he inherited and expanded. Vice President Joe Biden declared flatly in his debate last week, “We went out and rescued General Motors.”

It’s not readily conceded that the government will lose billions on the deal. It’s out about $1 billion on the $12.5 billion Chrysler bailout. At GM, the government is $27 billion in the hole on a $49.5 billion bailout.

The Republican nominee has taken shortcuts with jobless numbers, to the point of wildly misstating them at times.

In the first debate, just before the improved September jobless figures came out, Romney said in one instance the U.S. has “23 million people out of work.” A bit more accurately, he said earlier in the debate there are “23 million people out of work or stopped looking for work.” But that was off by close to 9 million.

The government counts nearly 12.1 million unemployed, 8.6 million working part-time and 2.5 million discouraged people who want work and looked for a job in the last year but aren’t looking now.

Romney’s vow to “get us to a balanced budget” is notably short of specifics and complicated by proposals in his agenda that conflict with that goal.

He promises, at once, to cut taxes, restore Medicare cuts, spend more on the armed forces — and balance the budget by 2020. He’s laid out a goal of bringing federal spending below 20 percent of the economy, but he’s provided only a few modest examples of the massive cuts that would be needed.

He’s steering clear of proposals to touch the huge entitlement programs in the short run, leaving only a limited portion of the federal budget to trim. Nor will he say which of the big, popular and expensive deductions and exemptions he’d pull back in the tax code.

Romney continually portrays Obamacare as a budget-buster, but the nonpartisan Congressional Budget Office has consistently said the law will reduce the deficit. This is more than an unsupported slam on the health care law itself. It also goes to Romney’s promise to balance the budget. He suggests that repealing the law will help him get to black ink.

Romney’s claim is further complicated because he would negate one big money-saver in the law, the $716 billion in Medicare spending cuts he promises to restore.

He’s also made selective use of forecasts about how many people will continue to have job-based health insurance. The Congressional Budget office “says up to 20 million people will lose their insurance as Obamacare goes into effect,” he stated in the last debate.

If he makes that claim again, consider that he was citing the worst-case scenario among four sketched by the budget office. Its best-case scenario was that 3 million people might gain coverage at work. And the estimates concern employer-provided insurance, not how many people are insured overall. Those who might lose their plans at work have other options under the law, although employer coverage would remain the mainstay for Americans age 64 and younger.

“Unlike President Obama, I will not raise taxes on the middle class.”

Obama has a substantial record of cutting middle-class taxes. He’s raised the federal cigarette tax, and his health care law imposes fines for not getting health insurance, which the Supreme Court ruled constitutes a tax. He’s reduced taxes for many more middle-income families. The 2009 stimulus package included a series of tax cuts for middle- and low-income people, including a tax credit worth up to $800 that year and again in 2010.