IRBIL, Iraq — The president of Iraq’s self-ruled Kurdish region demanded Wednesday that Shiite leaders agree on sharing power with their political opponents by September or else the Kurds could consider breaking away from Baghdad.
The warning by Kurdish President Massoud Barzani underscores that Shiite domination in Iraq’s government is reviving secession dreams that the now-departed U.S. military had tried to contain.
“What threatens the unity of Iraq is dictatorship and authoritarian rule,” Barzani said from his office outside of Irbil, the capital of the Kurdish region in northern Iraq.
“If Iraq heads toward a democratic state, then there will be no trouble. But if Iraq heads toward a dictatorial state, then we will not be able to live with dictatorship.”
He called it a “very dangerous political crisis in the country,” and said the impasse must be broken by September, when voters in the Kurdish region may consider a referendum for a state independent of Iraq.
“They have to decide if they are willing to accept to live under a dictatorial regime or not,” Barzani said. “They have to make that decision. It is their natural right.”
Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki’s media adviser, Ali al-Moussawi, declined comment.
The specter of a divided Iraq has been discussed — and dismissed by many — for months.
Barzani said he still is committed to negotiating a compromise before promoting secession, but he said it will be an option if the government logjam continues much longer.
Barzani is the highest-ranking Iraqi official to disavow al-Maliki’s government for sidelining its political opponents and, in some cases, persecuting them in what critics call an unabashed power grab.
He stopped short of demanding that al-Maliki step down to ease the crisis, but he left little doubt that tensions between the central government in Baghdad and the three-province Kurdish region have reached a new high.
Iraq expert Ramzy Mardini, with the Institute for the Study of War in Washington, said Barzani’s comments likely are aimed more at getting al-Maliki to bend to Kurds on some positions instead of containing a real threat to secede.
He noted that Kurds are years away from having enough oil and gas infrastructure to produce the resources necessary to support an independent state.
Oil disputes — specifically Baghdad’s blacklisting of ExxonMobil from bidding on new projects as punishment for plans to work in Kurdistan — have been at the heart of recent feuding between the two sides.
“A unified Iraq is at the center of U.S. policy and concerns every neighboring state,” Mardini said.
“Despite the real financial barriers, the very talk about Kurdish independence still makes everyone uneasy. It’s unwise to underestimate the role Kurdish aspirations and fears play in their calculus regarding statehood.”
The Kurdish region in Iraq’s north is politically autonomous, although it does receive a share of the nation’s $100 billion annual budget. It was created as a haven for the country’s ethnic Kurds in the 1970s after years of fighting with the central government.
Kurds account for up to 20 percent of Iraq’s population; it is unknown how many of them live in the northern region since there has been no census taken for years.
Neighboring Turkey and Iran have been concerned that an independent and prosperous Iraqi Kurdistan might promote separatism among their own Kurdish minority populations.