What do the Yemasee War, American Revolution, the Civil War, the Spanish-American War, World Wars I and II, the Cold War, Vietnam and modern conflict have in common?
They are all woven into the military historical fabric of Charleston.
From the indigenous populations' defense of their land against European colonizers to the Confederate Army's defense of the Charleston harbor, the Holy City has a deeply rich military history, much of which has been preserved for public education and enjoyment.
Here are some of the area’s highlights:
Visible from most points of the harbor, this island fortress was home to federal forces that were targeted by Confederate guns fired from around Charleston Harbor, launching the Civil War on April 12, 1861. The site is operated by the National Park Service and tour boats leave throughout the day.
The visitor’s center at Liberty Square on the Cooper River in Charleston is a good starting point. Nearby will be the Charleston-planned International African American Museum that's close to the site of the former Gadsden’s Wharf, the nation’s largest terminal during the slave trade.
On Sullivan’s Island, the fort replaced the Revolutionary War's Fort Sullivan. The modern-day version is a mix of old brick and 20th-century defensive upgrades. It was here that federal troops abandoned their post in December 1861 for the safety of Fort Sumter.
Seminole Indian leader Osceola is buried near the gate. It is also part of the NPS.
The H.L. Hunley
The nearly 40-foot vessel became the world’s first successful attack sub when it sank the USS Housatonic, a Union ship, off Sullivan’s Island on Feb. 17, 1864. The Confederate sub then mysteriously disappeared.
In 2000, the ship, and the remains of its nine crewmen, was recovered four miles offshore. It is being conserved at the Clemson University-run Warren Lasch Conservation Center in North Charleston, on the grounds of the former Charleston Naval Base and Shipyard. The site is open for tours only on weekends.
Only accessible by boat or organized nature tour, the island at the southern mouth of Charleston Harbor was part of the Confederate defensive line of forts and batteries designed to hold off Union troops. Battery Wagner once stood on Morris Island.
This fort was made famous by the 54th Massachusetts Infantry, an all-black troop, during the siege of Charleston. This history was later depicted in the film "Glory." Erosion has changed much of the island’s appearance, but beachcombing is encouraged. The Charleston/Morris Island Lighthouse is visible just offshore.
Old Exchange & Provost Dungeon
Originally built in 1771 at East Bay and Broad streets, the site known as the Exchange and Custom House became the center of economic activity for the emerging Colony of South Carolina as trade and the merchant society took off. The state’s delegation for the First Continental Congress was elected here in 1774. Two years later, the Declaration of Independence was read to the city residents here. South Carolinians caught up in the rebellion were imprisoned here.
Patriots Point Naval and Maritime Museum
The central attraction at the Mount Pleasant waterfront site is the Yorktown, a World War II-era aircraft carrier named for another carrier lost in the Battle of Midway. On board the vessel is the Congressional Medal of Honor Museum, which includes several well-curated exhibits that take you through various areas of the ship.
The site also includes the destroyer Laffey, survivor of vicious Pacific Theater kamikaze attacks, and the Vietnam Experience Exhibit of a U.S. outpost from the era. Cold War buffs can stop and visit the Cold War Submarine Memorial on the drive in. Operated by the state of South Carolina.
Battle of Secessionville
On June 16, 1862, Union forces made a push to capture James Island and Fort Lamar, where Confederate defenses protected the marshy southern path to the city of Charleston. Elements of the battlefield are now part of a historic area containing monuments and earthworks.
Military dates of note
1670: English settlers arriving form Charles Towne on the Ashley River north and across the river from the current city center on the peninsula. Within two years the fortified town is as big as 30 houses with up to 300 settlers.
June 28, 1776: Forces on Sullivan's Island repel an invasion attempt by British troops by sea as cannonballs bounce off palmetto log fortifications. The date would later be known as Carolina Day. More than 130 military engagements would be recorded in the state during the Revolution.
May 12, 1780: After a more than month-long siege, Charleston falls to the British.
April 12, 1861: Confederate forces fire on Union troops in Fort Sumter, igniting the Civil War.
Aug. 29, 1863: Union forces on Morris Island begin shelling city of Charleston. Siege will last 545 days.
Feb. 17, 1864: Confederate submarine H.L. Hunley sinks blockade ship Housatonic off Sullivan's Island becoming world's first successful attack sub.
Feb. 18, 1865: Confederate forces abandon Charleston to Union forces. Civil War would end two months later.
1901: The federal government founds the Charleston Naval Base a few miles up the Cooper River from downtown.
1941-45: War comes to Charleston but the city is slow to react. German submarines begin appearing off the harbor hunting merchant ships. One U-boat captain notes city was lit up and easy to find.
April 1, 1996: After 95 years of service through World Wars I and II, Korea, the Cold War and Vietnam, the Charleston Naval Base and Shipyard is closed in a Pentagon cost-saving move.