WASHINGTON — From household wealth to spending at stores, many of the U.S. economy’s vital signs have recovered from the damage done by the Great Recession.

Home foreclosures and layoffs have dropped to pre-recession levels, economic output has rebounded and the Dow Jones industrial average is in record territory.

So is the economy back to full health? Not quite.

Perhaps the best way to think about the U.S. economy is this: After five painful years, it nearly is back to where it started when the recession began. What’s different now is that the trends are much healthier. Gone are the fears that the economy could fall into another recession.

The recession officially began in December 2007. It ended in June 2009. Here’s a look at ways in which the economy has returned to pre-recession levels, and ways it hasn’t:

What’s back

HOUSEHOLD WEALTH: Americans lost $16 trillion in wealth during the recession, mainly because home values and stock prices sank. Those losses have now been reversed. Household “net worth” reached $66.1 trillion in the final three months of 2012, according to the Federal Reserve. That was just 2 percent below the peak reached in the fall of 2007.

RETAIL SALES: Just as household wealth has recovered, so has consumers’ willingness to spend more to shop, eat out or go on vacation. That trend has spurred job growth at retailers and restaurants.

LAYOFFS: The job market remains weak by some measures, but consider this: If you have a job, you’re less likely to lose it than at any other point in at least 12 years.

FORECLOSURES: Among the most visible signs of the recession were the “Foreclosure” and “Bank Owned” signs that dotted housing developments around the country. Now home prices are rising steadily, and foreclosures have sunk back to pre-recession levels.

STOCK MARKET: Last month the stock market finally regained the painful losses investors suffered during the recession. The Dow Jones industrial average closed at an all-time high of 14,253.77 on March 6. That topped its previous peak of 14,164.53 in October 2007. The Dow had plunged all the way to 6,547.05 in March 2009.

What’s not

TOTAL JOBS: The United States still has many fewer jobs than in December 2007. The recession eliminated 8.7 million; since then, 5.7 million jobs have come back, leaving the economy 3 million short.

UNEMPLOYMENT RATE: When the recession began, unemployment was 5 percent; now it’s 7.7 percent. Probably no figure better illustrates the downturn’s lingering damage.

HOUSING: The housing market has been recovering for about a year but still hasn’t reached normal levels.

AUTO SALES: Auto sales have nearly returned to where they were. Americans bought cars at an annual rate of nearly 16 million in December 2007. Sales plunged to 10.4 million in 2009. In March this year, the annual sales pace was 15.3 million.